List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort is specified.


ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


Option Effect
-a, --all do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, --almost-all do not list implied . and ..
--author with -l, print the author of each file
-b, --escape print C-style escapes for nongraphic characters
--block-size=,SIZE/ with -l, scale sizes by SIZE when printing them; e.g., ‘–block-size=M’; see SIZE format below
-B, --ignore-backups do not list implied entries ending with ~
-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status information); with -l: show ctime and sort by name; otherwise: sort by ctime, newest first
-C list entries by columns
--color[=,WHEN/] colorize the output; WHEN can be ‘always’ (default if omitted), ‘auto’, or ‘never’; more info below
-d, --directory list directories themselves, not their contents
-D, --dired generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode
-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls –color
-F, --classify append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries
--file-type likewise, except do not append ‘*’
--format=,WORD/ across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C
--full-time like -l –time-style=,full-iso/
-g like -l, but do not list owner
--group-directories-first group directories before files;
-G, --no-group in a long listing, don’t print group names
-h, --human-readable with -l and -s, print sizes like 1K 234M 2G etc.
--si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, --dereference-command-line follow symbolic links listed on the command line
--dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir follow each command line symbolic link
--hide=,PATTERN/ do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)
--hyperlink[=,WHEN/] hyperlink file names; WHEN can be ‘always’ (default if omitted), ‘auto’, or ‘never’
--indicator-style=,WORD/ append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)
-i, --inode print the index number of each file
-I, --ignore=,PATTERN/ do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
-k, --kibibytes default to 1024-byte blocks for disk usage; used only with -s and per directory totals
-l use a long listing format
-L, --dereference when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file the link references rather than for the link itself
-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, --numeric-uid-gid like -l, but list numeric user and group *ID*s
-N, --literal print entry names without quoting
-o like -l, but do not list group information
-p, --indicator-style=,slash/ append / indicator to directories
-q, --hide-control-chars print ? instead of nongraphic characters
--show-control-chars show nongraphic characters as-is (the default, unless program is ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)
-Q, --quote-name enclose entry names in double quotes
--quoting-style=,WORD/ use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, shell-escape, shell-escape-always, c, escape (overrides QUOTING_STYLE environment variable)
-r, --reverse reverse order while sorting
-R, --recursive list subdirectories recursively
-s, --size print the allocated size of each file, in blocks
-S sort by file size, largest first
--sort=,WORD/ sort by WORD instead of name: none (-U), size (-S), time (-t), version (-v), extension (-X)
--time=,WORD/ with -l, show time as WORD instead of default modification time: atime or access or use (-u); ctime or status (-c); also use specified time as sort key if –sort=,time/ (newest first)
--time-style=,TIME_STYLE/ time/date format with -l; see TIME_STYLE below
-t sort by modification time, newest first
-T, --tabsize=,COLS/ assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8
-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time; with -l: show access time and sort by name; otherwise: sort by access time, newest first
-U do not sort; list entries in directory order
-v natural sort of (version) numbers within text
-w, --width=,COLS/ set output width to COLS. 0 means no limit
-x list entries by lines instead of by columns
-X sort alphabetically by entry extension
-Z, --context print any security context of each file
-1 list one file per line. Avoid ‘\n’ with -q or -b
--help display this help and exit
--version output version information and exit

The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,… (powers of 1000).

The TIME_STYLE argument can be full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, or +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like in date(1).

If FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, then FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files.

TIME_STYLE prefixed with ‘posix-’ takes effect only outside the POSIX locale. Also the TIME_STYLE environment variable sets the default style to use.

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and with –color=,never/. With –color=,auto/, ls emits color codes only when standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.


Command Effect
ls -alh Lists all files in the current folder with human readable file sizes
ls --sort=size Shows all files in the current folder sorted by size
ls --recursive -lh Prints the folder structure with human readable file sizes